Evolution of Value-Oriented Education:
Formation of character through education had its important place in Indian education system right from the Vedic period. Till at the end of Sixteenth century, the place of character formation through education was unquestionable. The medium of character formation through education was religious and therefore religious institutions tried to educate persons in character building during their period and sphere. Inclusively after the arrival of Britishers in India, the aim of Indian education was changed. The aim of education to them was thus very limited. Some functional literacy including knowledge of subjects was introduced. In the Education Commission of 1882 only, moral education was recommended. In pre-independence and after independence, several commissions and committees recommended character education, religious education and moral education. According to National Education policy of 1986, moral and religious education were broadly defined and coined into value education.
Distinction Between Value Education and Moral Education:
1. The concept of value education is more extensive in comparison with the concept of moral education. Moral education is a constituent of value education.
2. Value education is developmental and it is based on expected values. On the contrary moral education is static and it is based on the ideals of society.
3. In value education, all round development of human is considered, whereas in moral education only ideals of individuals with its relation to society are considered.
4. Value education is scientifically based but it cannot be said with determination whether moral education is so based scientifically. It is so because in moral education customs, faiths and traditions are reared and sometimes reflect the religion.
5. Value education consists all the component parts like individual, society, nation, environment and universe etc but in moral education only relation between individual and society is emphasized.
In moral education each society fixes its own ideals and it is the endeavour of the society to keep these ideals stable. Therefore individual’s behavior is restricted to individual and society. There is a great impact of religion on society and therefore religion is reflected in individual’s behavior. We preserve it in the name of customs and culture. But in value education the changes in human behavior are studied in its new perspective and propagated through various media.
Progressive Outlook of Value Education:
Generally, society is fond of preserving customs and these customs are sometimes treated as culture of the society. Many customs and traditions are based on religion. Religion is originated in consideration with the prevalent situation. Though idea about emancipation in many religions is the same, the ways in each religion are different. Individual’s behaviour according to each religion therefore differs. Individual tries to safeguard the behaviour. We call it culture. The sanskars (experiences) are transmitted from one generation to other generation. These are the ideal behaviour patterns of society. As there are so many religions and different sects within a religion, individuals are free to decide their ideal behaviour within religion and within sect of each religion. If we try to mould the public through religious and moral education, there is possibility of religious and cultural struggle in a secular country like India. Religious and moral education is possible in a country where only one religion is dominant. Society is dynamic and values that are created in political, economic and social
fields are subject to changes in these fields. An individual and society exists by the assimilation of these values. Society thus becomes dynamic, e.g. the rising of twenty first century is the gift of science age. Society has to accept behaviour and thoughts in consonant with the age of science. This is the accepted behaviour of an individual. Example, the moon is not a God but a planet. We proved it by scientific existence. The said behaviour is favourable to science age and also expected for individual progress and progress of society. We call such behaviour as value oriented behaviour, e.g. Small pox is a disease and it does not exist due to divine anger. A patient becomes normal by medical treatment. We therefore take preventive measures or if there are symptoms of disease we
approach the doctor for medical treatment. This behaviour is expected from society. It is based on scientific outlook and favourable to a nation. An individual therefore gets freefrom the disease and his individual progress becomes possible. In the aforesaid behaviour, four criteria are properly followed and therefore it is value-oriented behaviour.
Different Types of Value Education:
National value or constitutional value:
Each country has its own independent constitution in which specific values are included. They are called national values or constitutional values, e.g. Following values are included in Indian Constitution.
Each country preserves some values according to its culture and these values are preserved land protected. Dr. Chilan has fixed the following values of Indian society viz. Pity, Self Control, Universal brotherhood, honesty, respect and faith.
Many professionals are in existence and each profession has got its own independent values e.g. Following are the values of the teaching profession: Knowledge thrust, Sincerity in profession, Regularity and Faith.
Each religion has got its independent status, principles and rules e.g. Following values are included in Boudha religion. Wisdom, Character and Pity Some values are common to all religions, whereas some values are attached to as particular religion only and they are the specialties of that particular religion.
Literature and Arts (painting, carving, drawing etc.) have got their fixed criteria and rules. They are investigated and are fixed.