Operations Research

Introduction:

Operation research is a type of a mathematical tool by which we can optimize any problem or in other word it is a branch of mathematics which provides an optimal solution to the management problems. The scope aspect of any subject indicates the limit of application of the subject matter/techniques of the subject to the various fields to solve the variety of the problems.

Scope of operational research:

1.       In Defense Operations

2.       In Industry

3.       In Planning For Economic Growth

4.       In Agriculture

5.       In Traffic control

6.       In Hospitals

                                              

In Defense Operations

In Industry

 In Planning For Economic Growth

  •         In fact, the subject Operations research is the baby of World War II.
  •          Here one can apply the techniques like Linear Programming, Game theory, and inventory models etc. to win the game.
  •         In fact in war filed every situation is a competitive situation. More over each party may have different bases, such as Air force, Navy and Army. The decision taken by one will have its effect on the other. Hence proper co-ordination of the three bases and smooth flow of information is necessary. Here operations research techniques will help the departmental heads to take appropriate decisions.
  •         After the II World War, the, Industrial world faced a depression and to solve the various industrial problems, industrialist tried the models, which were successful in solving their problems.
  •          Industrialist learnt that the techniques of operations research can conveniently apply to solve industrial problems. Then onwards, various models have been developed to solve industrial problems.
  •          Today the managers have on their hand numerous techniques to solve different types of industrial problems.
  •          In fact decision trees, inventory model, Linear Programming model, Transportation model, Sequencing model, Assignment model and replacement models are helpful to the managers to solve various problems; they face in their day to day work. These models are used to minimize the cost of production, increase the productivity and use the available resources carefully and for healthy industrial growth.
  •          In India we have five year planning for steady economic growth.  Every state government has to prepare plans for balanced growth of the state.
  •          Various secretaries belonging to different departments has to co-ordinate and plan for steady economic growth.
  •         For this all departments can use Operations research techniques for planning purpose.

 In Agriculture

 In Traffic control

 In Hospitals

  • The demand for food products is increasing day by day due to population explosion. But the land available for agriculture is limited. We must find newer ways of increasing agriculture yield. So the selection of land area for agriculture and the seed of food grains for sowing get what they desire at the desired time and desired cost.
  •          Due to population explosion, the increase in the number and verities of vehicles, road density is continuously increasing. Especially in peak hours, it will be a headache to control the traffic. Hence proper timing of traffic signaling is necessary. Depending on the flow of commuters, proper signaling time is to be worked out. This can be easily done by the application of queuing theory.
  •          Many a time we see very lengthy queues of patient near hospitals and few of them get treatment and rest of them have to go without treatment because of time factor.
  •          Sometimes we have problems non-availability of essential drugs, shortage of ambulances, shortage of beds etc. These problems can be conveniently solved by the application of operations research techniques.